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This is your hub for knowledge and information on windows and doors. Over the years, Fenesta has developed a unique understanding of how they work. This knowledge is shared through this section to help you learn what features and materials enable windows and doors to contribute to your home's comfort

Understanding Windows

A window is defined as an opening in the wall above the floor level, whose traditional function is to provide natural light, ventilation and vision. With advancements in technology the role of a window has broadened to include insulation against outside noise, protection from storms, prevent rain water seepage and reduce rising energy costs. It also breaks the monotony of the walls and adds to the overall aesthetics of your home.

Windows come in various shapes and styles, and the right kind of window can change the look of your room, home or office.

Choosing the right type of window for a particular location can be quite intimidating given the different styles, features and materials available in the market today. Here are a few things you need to know when you plan to replace those old, creaky windows.


Sliding windows

These windows have sashes that slightly overlap each other, while moving on a fixed horizontal frame. These are best suited for residential and commercial spaces where space saving is a must. They offer convenience and space

Casement windows

These windows have their sash hinged, which enables them to swing in and out, just like a door. Once again, these windows are very popular with residential plots.

Bay windows

These windows protrude out of the main walls of a room, creating a hollow bay. They are best suited for spacious rooms with high ceilings that offer a good scenic view and also add a touch of elegance to the room.

Tilt and Turn windows

These windows can tilt inwards for protection against rain and swing in like a casement window with the help of their side hinges. They are best suited when you need the slight ventilation but without the outside weather elements affecting your home.

Combination windows

Combination windows are a combination of different types of windows that deliver a completely new and stylish twist to your room.

Fixed windows

Fixed windows are those windows with no openings and these are best in spaces where little or no extra ventilation is required.

Single and Double Hung Windows

Single hung windows are fixed at the top but the bottom slides up and down like a traditional sash window. Double hung windows on the other hand, have a fixed bottom but can be opened at the top.

Awning windows

Similar to casement windows, these windows too have a hinged sash, but the hinges are at the top.

Understand your space and then choose a window type best suited for your requirement.

Framing Material

Wood and aluminium which had been the predominant material for constructing windows in the past have given way to UPVC (Un-plasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride frames) - a new-age material. Earlier, buildings were not constructed keeping in mind expansion in the size of doors and windows in summers, erosion during the monsoons and exposure to UV radiation and aesthetics. UPVC windows have changed all that and minimised the effect of these unwelcome intrusions. Moreover, materials like UPVC are low-maintenance, aesthetically attractive, energy-efficient, come in a wide range of colours, do away with the need to periodically paint the window and door frames - and don't warp.

Components of Window

Following are the main components of windows

Outer Frame

This is an immovable part of the window fixed into the aperture that was built into the wall when house was constructed

Outer Frame

This is an immovable part of the window fixed into the aperture that was built into the wall when house was constructed


This is typically an open-able part of the window, although sometimes it can be fixed too (depending on the requirement). It is used to hold the glass


Usually used for covering the openings or the gaps between window frame and the wall, a trim also doubles up as a styling accessory for the window making it visually more appealing. Trims can be applied to both exterior and interior of the window


This is the glass portion of the window and is often referred to as glazing. Two or three glasses can also be combined together to improve thermal and sound insulation. Different varieties of glasses are available and you can choose the one that meets your requirements


These are horizontal bars that divide the window's outer frame


These are vertical bars that divide the window's outer frame


It refers to the dividers (horizontal or vertical) in window sash


It is the horizontal part at the bottom of the window


These are usually metal bars that are clamped inside the window frame or onto the wall to protect against theft.

Handles & Locks

Handles are used for opening and closing the window and are fitted on to the sash of the window. Usually they are accompanied with a locking mechanism to prevent easy entry into your home

Friction Hinge

It is used for connecting sash with the outer frame. Using a friction hinge, the sash can be kept open at any desired angle.

Glazing Bead

It is used for securing the glass on the frame or the sash

Choosing the right window

Below are some of the important factors to consider while choosing the right window for your home:

  • Sound Insulation

    If you live in a crowded locality or close to busy roads, you might want to go for windows which offer superior sound insulation, so that you can have a peaceful environment at home.

  • Weather Resistance

    Like other aspects of the house, windows must be chosen keeping in mind the climatic conditions, altitude, etc. Especially if you are living in high-rise buildings or in heavy monsoon areas, it is imperative that windows withstand torrential rains and high-speed winds, thereby weatherproofing your home. Nowadays, with new-age framing materials like UPVC, it is even possible to construct UV resistant windows that neither fade, even under sustained exposure to sun, nor expand or contract with temperature variations.

  • Dust proofing

    Dust proof windows are designed to be air tight, leaving no gaps to allow dust to enter. This enhances the quality of air in your home and ensures your interiors stay clean.

  • Energy efficiency

    Windows play an important role in determining the energy costs of your home. Therefore you should consider the following energy efficiency ratings of the window profile while deciding on your window solution

    U-Factor: Ranging from 0.20 to 1.20, the lower the U-factor, the better the window traps heat inside the room.
    Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC): It ranges from 0 to 1. The lower the number, the better the window blocks excess heat.
    Visible Transmittance (VT): With a range of 0 to 1, it measures the amount of visible light allowed inside by the window. 1 indicates total visible transmittance, while 0 indicates complete opaqueness.

    An energy efficient window will not let outside heat flow in or cold-air escape out, as a result air-conditioning costs goes down

  • Longevity & Durability

    Installing low-maintenance, weather-resistant and termite-proof windows will ensure your windows stay as good as new for a long time and even outlast the building

  • Beautify Your Home Interiors

    Windows no longer serve just utilitarian purpose but are important aesthetic elements that add to the beauty of your home. With technological advancements, windows of various sizes, shapes and styles are now possible. Choose the ones that compliment the architectural style of your home

  • Save Maintenance Hassles

    If you have to get your windows repainted every few months, leading to a lot of unnecessary cost and discomfort, it is time to replace them with maintenance-free windows. These days windows made from special fade-resistant UPVC blends are widely available in the market. They do not require painting, just routine cleaning with soap and water.

  • Opt for Convenience and Optimize Space Usage

    To combat challenges arising due to space constraints, it is best to replace two-way opening windows with sliding windows. Not only is this easy and smooth to operate, but it is also quite easy to clean.

  • Maintain Privacy

    Switching to a one-way view window is best suited for those who wish to avoid peeping eyes. One-way windows make it difficult for someone standing outside during the day, to see inside the home.

The Right Kind of Installation

While the right windows can help to transform your living space, right installation is equally important. Windows with cracks or gaps, allow hot or cold air to enter the house, increasing the dependency on an air conditioner or heater. This increases your energy bills. It is recommended that you hire trained and certified installers to get your new windows in place.